LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

0. Portrait of Ferdinand von Arlt
1. Patagonians
2. African Pigmies
3. Moros from the Philippines
4. Diagram of the hypermetropic, emmetropic and myopic eyeballs
5. The eye as a camera
6. Mexican Indians
7. Ainus, the aboriginal inhabitants of Japan
8. The usual method of using the retinoscope
9. Diagrams of the images of Purkinje
10. Diagram by which Helmholtz illustrated his theory of accommodation
11. Portrait of Thomas Young
12. Portrait of Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz
13. Demonstration upon the eye of a rabbit that the inferior oblique muscle is an essential factor in accommodation
14. Demonstration upon the eye of a carp that the superior oblique muscle is essential to accommodation
15. Demonstration upon the eye of a rabbit that the production of refractive errors is dependent upon the action of he external muscles
16. Demonstration upon the eye of a fish that the production of myopic and hypermetropic refraction is dependent upon the action of the extrinsic muscles
17. Production and relief of mixed astigmatism in the eye of a carp
18. Demonstration upon the eyeball of a rabbit that the obliques lengthen the visual axis in myopia
19. Demonstration upon the eye of a carp that the recti shorten the visual axis in hypermetropia
20. Lens pushed out of the axis of vision
21. Rabbit with lens removed
22. Experiment upon the eye of a cat, demonstrating that the fourth nerve, which supplies only the superior oblique muscle, is just as much a nerve of accommodation as the third, and that the superior oblique muscle which it supplies is a muscle of accommodation
23. Pithing a fish preparatory to operating upon its eyes
24. Arrangements for photographing images reflected from the eyeball
25. Arrangements for holding the head of the subject steady while images were being photographed
26. Image of electric filament on the front of the lens
27. Images of the electric filament reflected simultaneously from the cornea and lens
28. Image of electric filament upon the cornea
29. Image of electric filament on the front of the sclera
30. Images on the side of the sclera
31. Multiple images upon the front of the lens
32. Reflection of the electric filament from the iris
33. Demonstrating that the back of the lens does not change during accommodation
34. Straining to see at the near-point produces hypermetropia
35. Myopia produced by unconscious strain to see at the distance is increased by conscious strain
36. Immediate production of myopia and myopic astigmatism in eyes previously normal by strain to see at the distance
37. Myopic astigmatism comes and goes according as the subject looks at distant objects with or without strain
38. Patient who has had the lens of the right eye removed for cataract produces changes in the refraction of this eye by strain
39. A family group strikingly illustrating the effect of the mind upon the vision
40. Myopes who never went to school, or read in the Subway
41. One of the many thousands of patients cured of errors of refraction by the methods presented in this book
42. Palming
43. Patient with atrophy of the optic nerve gets flashes of improved vision after palming
44. Paralysis of the seventh nerve cured by palming
45. Glaucoma cured by palming
46. Woman with normal vision looking directly at the sun
47. Woman aged 37 – child aged 4, both looking directly at the sun without discomfort
48. Focussing the rays of the sun upon the eye of a patientby means of a burning glass
49. Specimen of diamond type
50. Photographic type reduction
51. Operating without anaesthetics
52. Neuralgia relieved by palming and the memory of black
53. Voluntary production of squint by strain to see
54. Case of divergent vertical squint cured by eye education
55. Temporary cure of squint by memory of a black period
56. Face-rest designed by Kallmann, a German optician